Guide to Brassica Biofumigant Cover Crops: Managing soilborne diseases in vegetable production systems
This publication contains information to assist growers in understanding how biofumigants work and managing them for optimum efficacy against soilborne diseases.
Biofumigants are a unique type of cover crop that produce compounds with suppression effects on soilborne pathogens, pests and weeds.
This guide also discusses and presents data on a range of agronomic management practices of biofumigant cover crops including pest and diseases, nutrient uptake requirements, irrigation and incorporation methods.
Soil pH has a profound effect on nutrient availability to plants and microorganisms, and thus soil and plant health.
This fact sheet shares the results of a field trial in north-west Tasmania using several treatments to raise pH in an acidic soil and a cost benefit analysis.
In this edition: Soil Biology in Vegetable Production webinar recording, demonstration site news from Cowra, NSW, new resources on potential changes to integrated crop protection, pest management resources and meet the Soil Wealth ICP team.
In this global scan we look at some of the changes affecting the integrated crop protection tools available to vegetable growers by examining what is happening elsewhere, globally and in other sectors.
In this edition: soil your undies challenge, catch up on the Potato R&D Forum 2021, demo site trial report from Richmond, Tasmania, using drones to generate farm insights, updated Biological Products Database and meet the Soil Wealth ICP team.
There are many things we can take for granted, and in vegetable and potato production this can be as simple as nutrition and its impact on a crop from a plant physiology perspective.
However, growers and advisers armed with a deep knowledge of nutrition and its practical application in a crop are better placed to ensure that crop achieves peak production. We spoke to our Partnership Network member Stoller Australia to find out more.
From 2018-2021, a demonstration site trial at Harvest Farms in Richmond, Tasmania explored the impact of organic soil amendments on baby leaf crop quality and yield.
Potential benefits were observed from the compost in relation to nutrients (e.g. phosphorus and potassium availability), soil carbon levels and soil moisture holding capacity. However, results should be viewed with care given the trial was not fully replicated.
Catch up on Day 1 of the Australian Potato R&D Forum 2021, which focused on pest management. Speakers and topics included:
• Season update from the regions: What have been the key pest and disease issues?
• Management of soil constraints in the potato industry: Ben Fleay/Greg Hall (Precision Agriculture)
• Tamarixia triozae, a small parasitoid with a big future: How has Tamarixia helped New Zealand manage TPP? Dr Sally Anderson (Market Access Solutionz)
• New smartphone technologies for pathogen detection: Professor Jean Ristaino (North Carolina State University) (GRDC Video)
• iMapPESTS and emerging insect threats for the potato industry: Callum Fletcher and Shakira Johnson (AUSVEG)
• Overview of new crop protection products: Tim Belleville (E.E. Muir & Sons)
• How will new technology and products help us manage pests and soil health? (Panel session)
Catch up on Day 2 of the Australian Potato R&D Forum 2021, which focused on soil health and disease management. Speakers and topics included:
• Promoting soil health: How can cover crops and soil amendments improve your soil health and yield? Julie Finnigan (Serve-Ag)
• PREDICTA Pt: How can you identify risks before they become a problem? Michael Rettke (SARDI)
• Update on ‘Investigating soil pH and nutrition as possible factors influencing pink rot in potatoes’: Dr Robert Tegg (TIA)
• Simplot Ag R&D disease-related projects overview: Dr Audrey Leo (Simplot)
• Update on ‘Mechanisms and manipulation of resistance to powdery scab in potato roots’: Professor Calum Wilson (TIA)
• Options and approaches for managing soil borne disease and promoting plant health (Panel session)
Our demonstration site in Richmond, southern Tasmania, is hosted by Harvest Farms. In 2018, a trial was established to examine the costs and benefits of quality compost as an organic soil amendment on spinach babyleaf crop yield and quality.
Find out the soil pathogen DNA results from 2020 (year 3 of the trial) in this update. Keep an eye out for a full report on the trial results which will be released shortly.
In this edition: new weed management guides for growers, an update on Australia's agvet regulatory system review, upcoming events and webinars, demo site news from Tassie, a new guide on preventing leaf and stem diseases and more.
It’s rare to come across someone who is as passionate about soil health as Peter Wadewitz.
The founder and Managing Director of Peats Soil & Garden Supplies has dedicated the last 45 years to supplying compost, mulches and recycled organic resources to the horticulture, landscape and garden supplies industries in South Australia and interstate. The business operates on four sites across South Australia and recently expanded its presence to Darwin, South Africa and Qatar.
For Peter, it all starts with talking to growers about healthy soils, building organic matter and strengthening soil structure to produce a better crop.
In this edition: Soil Wealth ICP on show at Hort Connections 2021, global scan and review of remote sensing, webinar recording on soil organic matter, biology and mineralisation and a Partnership Network Profile on Peats Soil & Garden Supplies.
Soil organic matter, biology and mineralisation – The challenges & complexity of estimating mineralisation rates
AHR’s Marc Hinderager and Soilpack Services’ Ian Packer are teaming up to deliver a webinar on soil organic matter, soil biology and the challenges and complexity of estimating mineralisation rates in soils.
A video on how FOGO compost is made and why it is beneficial and safe to use in horticulture
In this edition: choosing the right lime product to manage soil acidification, EGVID2020 celebrated at industry awards, videos available from our Victorian demo sites and new resources on boosting mycorrhizal fungi in vegetable crops.
The vegetable industry has a growing interest in soil health and beneficial soil microbes, including mycorrhizal fungi. While there is a need for practices that help to boost the beneficial fungi in Australian vegetable crops, getting the benefits under commercial field conditions is not easy.
This case study examines why and how vegetable growers can boost beneficial mycorrhizal fungi in their crops. It also shares the results from a trial which looked at the potential of cover crops, together with commercial mycorrhizal inoculants and reduced soil tillage, to increase the beneficial fungi in vegetable crops.
In this edition: Information on fall armyworm and serpentine leafminer, demonstration site news from NSW and new resources on oxalis, volunteer potatoes and winter cover crops.
Grower Kim Ngov has sown another cover crop trial on his intense vegetable farm near the southwest outskirts of Sydney (Wedderburn NSW). This time Kim is focused on using cover crops to build soil health, control weeds and eliminate single-use plastic mulch.
There are many factors that contribute to strong environmental stewardship in the vegetable industry, and improving soil management and plant health is an important component of business sustainability. But when it comes to finding evidence of the strengths and gaps of your growing operation, it can be difficult to know where to start.
This article from our Partnership Network member EnviroVeg explains how the program can help growers identify these opportunities and take action to ensure their vegetable growing business is environmentally responsible.
In this edition: The future of integrated weed management technologies, demonstration site news from NSW and Victoria, new resources on healthy soils, blackleg in potato and drone regulations podcast.
Being part of a grower group has many benefits. It helps to be on the forefront of new developments in vegetable production and talk to other growers to share successes, challenges and support each other with new ideas.
A group of young growers have joined the Warren Improvement Group in Western Australia to provide a fresh focus on improving vegetable production in the Manjimup region. This case study explains more.
In this edition: Good Soils Guide, seasonal outlook for February to April, demonstration site news from Manjimup, Western Australia and Werribee South, Victoria, and new resources on choosing cover crops, organic soil amendments and spray rig calibration.
A healthy soil is productive, sustainable and profitable. But what exactly does 'soil health' mean for vegetable growers?
This fact sheet shares some top tips for vegetable growers when it comes to defining soil health.
Nematodes are used as biological indicators of soil health because the number and types present in a soil reflect changes in the microbes they consume, and the soil’s physical and chemical environment.
This fact sheet from Soil Quality provides a good overview of why nematodes are good biological indicators.
Vegetable growers in Australia can now access a comprehensive online resource to improve all aspects of soil health on-farm and increase the efficiency and profitability of their businesses.
The Good Soil Guide is a free online encyclopaedia specifically designed for growers and industry to use in the field. The resource was developed in the United Kingdom as a collaboration between Yorkshire Water, Yorkshire supply chain consultancy Future Food Solutions and soil scientist Neil Fuller.
In this edition: Focus topics announced for Soil Wealth ICP in 2021, demonstration site news from Richmond, Tasmania and new resources on foliar diseases, nutgrass, integrated weed management and pathogen DNA testing.
This fact sheet provides guidance on the importance of monitoring soilborne diseases, pathogens that can be tested, method for pathogen testing and tips for understanding and managing soilborne disease risks.
Patience was indeed a virtue for Tasmania’s agriculture industry after the 2020 Precision Ag Expo successfully went ahead on Monday 2 November at Hagley Farm School, following a six-month delay.
Doris Blaesing from the Soil Wealth ICP team was also on hand to share information on the project’s activities, resources and outputs with attendees.
In this edition: 2020 Precision Ag Expo wrap-up, demonstration site findings from Katherine, Northern Territory and Koo Wee Rup, Victoria, and new resources including a soil microbiology fact sheet and advantages of Sunn hemp in veg production video.
Cover crops, typically grown during the wet season in the north of the Northern Territory (NT), are an essential part of best practice management where poor soil structure can be further eroded by heavy rainfall.
A demonstration site trial on cover crops for cucurbit growers was developed in 2020 at the Katherine Research Station. This article outlines more information about what was involved in the trial, the initial results and potential next steps.
An increased awareness of the impact of some long-standing farming practices and community expectations, combined with a greater interest and understanding of alternative systems and products has contributed to the evolution of sustainable vegetable production in Australia.
According to Soil Wealth ICP Partnership Network member and Sustainable Farming Solutions General Manager Steven David, while progress has been made in Australian organic production in particular, there is still room for expansion.
Soil health is closely linked to soil microbiology. This fact sheet outlines information on a broad group of soil microbes including fungi, bacteria and pseudomonas, and explains how different levels, numbers and ratios of these microbes can impact the overall health of your soil and crops.
The Portelli family has been growing vegetables in the north-western Sydney suburb of Maroota, NSW, for two generations. The farm is situated on a sandy loam that is characterised by low organic matter and low cation-exchange capacity.
The incorporation of recycled organic compost into the Portellis’ cropping schedule yielded a significant improvement in crop performance.
Recycled organics are compostable organic materials, including garden organics, food waste, residual wood and timber. Recycled organics compost is derived from shredding and stockpiling these green wastes for up to six months before being screened to remove contaminants and create a compost high in organic matter, essential nutrients and beneficial bacteria.
Compost made from recycled organics is an effective, long-term soil conditioner against drought. Recycled organics will improve the water use efficiency of a farm by capturing more water and holding it for longer.
Over time, an increase in organic matter will improve water holding capacity, soil structure, soil porosity and hydraulic conductivity. Recycled organics applied to the soil surface will also reduce soil crusting and improve water infiltration.
This project is supported by the NSW Environment Protection Authority as part of Waste Less, Recycle More, funded from the waste levy.
Recycled organics are compostable organic materials, including garden organics, food waste, residual wood and timber. Compost made from recycled organics is derived from shredding and stockpiling these green materials for up to six months before being screened to remove contaminants and create a compost high in organic matter, essential nutrients and beneficial bacteria.
There have been noticeable benefits to soil structure from the precision ag trial focusing on variable rate nutrition over the past 2.5 years at our Koo Wee Rup demo site in Victoria. Check out a short video and some photos from our latest visit to the site.
In this edition: Have your say on Soil Wealth ICP, demonstration site news from Gingin, Western Australia and a new guide to useful project resources.
This guide summarises and provides easy access to useful resources developed by the Soil Wealth and Integrated Crop Protection project from December 2017 to July 2020.
In this edition: Vegetable Crop Nutrition Masterclass an online success, demonstration site news from Sydney Basin and Cowra, NSW, and new resources on pink rot in potatoes.
Liam Southam-Rogers (AHR) runs through the economic outcomes of two demonstration trails established for the project. Mulyan Farms at Cowra, NSW realised a strong economic payoff for using compost made from recycled organics. Wavertree Farms at Somersby, NSW also showed a profitable return with the use of recycled organics.
Soil biology is a complex, dynamic and broad field. This podcast will introduce you to the concept of why biology is important to soil fertility and maximising crop production.
In this edition: Get effective R&D support in a remote setting, demonstration site news from Victoria and Bathurst, NSW, and new resources on managing salinity in potato and vegetable production.
Dr Kelvin Montagu summarises the potential role of cover crops in managing mycorrhizal fungi in vegetable production.
The webinar covers:
- Why mycorrhizal fungi
- Do Australian vegetable crops have mycorrhizal fungi – a survey of 50 vegetable crops
- Levels of mycorrhizae in vegetable growing soil
- Trials adding inoculant to cover crops
- Trials adding inoculant to cover crops and vegetable crops (leeks/corn)
- The webinar presents the work undertaken in the Optimising Cover Crops for the Australian
As the use of biological crop products increases in the Australian vegetable industry, it is essential that growers have a clear understanding of soil biology and how these products can work effectively. This includes the role of mycorrhizae and how it can impact the quality and yield of a crop.
In this edition: Have your say on agvet chemicals review, demonstration site news from Bathurst, NSW and Tasmania, and new resources on nutrition management support.
Join Dr Kelvin Montagu (AHR) and Dr Shane Powell (University of Tasmania) for a webinar on the impacts of cover crops on soil biology where we consider the questions:
• How diverse are biological communities in vegetable soils?
• Do we see differences between sites (Tasmania to Queensland)?
• Do cover crops impact on the microbial communities?
• How do soil properties and management impact on the microbial community?
• What impact do biofumigants have on the soil microbial community?
Most good crop management practices begin with the soil. Enhancing natural populations of beneficial soil organisms can aid in the growth and establishment of crops, as well as improve soil health and sustainability.
Sodicity is different to salinity, but it can still have a negative impact on soil structure and crop growth.
This fact sheet explains what sodicity is and how it differs to salinity; how to identify sodicity in soils and its impact on soil and crops, as well as management options.
Earthworms are known to be an indicator of healthy soil function, with the ability to improve soil structure and fertility as well as promote root and plant growth.
Soil sampling and testing is usually done prior to planting a crop; specific in-crop testing can be useful e.g. testing for available nitrate and ammonium.
A soil test report is only as good as the care taken in sampling. Tools and equipment should be cleaned prior to collecting each sample. Completing labels and writing on bags or containers before going out to the field can save some time and confusion.
Read this fact sheet for guidance on how to take soil samples correctly and obtain reliable information on the nutrient status of your soil.
Recycled organics (compost) is a commercially viable source of composted organic matter that does not contain animal manures, and is now being used successfully on vegetable farms in NSW.
Rob Niccol from Australian Native Landscapes and Dr Kelvin Montagu from AHR discuss the value proposition of recycled organics and explain how the compost can be successfully integrated into vegetable farming in Australia.
This project is supported by the NSW Environment Protection Authority as part of Waste Less, Recycle More, funded from the waste levy.
Dr Kelvin Montagu demonstrates the erosion control benefits of strip-tillage in vegetable production.
Labile carbon is the carbon most readily available as a carbon and energy source to microorganisms.
Read this fact sheet to find out more about labile carbon and its use as a 'leading indicator' of soil health, as well as undertaking your own labile carbon field test to see for yourself.
The Soils Network of Knowledge (SNoK) faciliatated a webinar on replicated small plot field experiments with Steve Morris from NSW Department of Primary Industries.
Watch this webianr to find out more about the complexities of field research design and the logical case for undertaking field research in a structured manner.
This guide summarises useful information developed by the Soil Wealth and Integrated Crop Protection (ICP) Phase 1 projects from 2014-2017, and where to find it. These resources are relevant to all major vegetable growing regions in Australia. The resources developed includes fact sheets (51), case studies (12), videos and apps (36), e-newsletters (32 editions), as well as demonstration site information. The main topics covered by these resources include crop management, pest and disease management, and soil, nutrition and compost.
All the resources in this guide can be found on this project website.
Six years ago, Rob Hinrichsen and his team at Kalfresh decided to focus on four key practices – controlled traffic, cover crops, soil biology and compost – to improve the soil health across their farms. The main drivers were to improve crop yield and quality, as well as the sustainability of the business.
Rob’s emphasis on softer tillage, boosting organic matter with compost and cover crops has helped the soil recover and support a healthy population of beneficial soil organisms. Rob supplements the naturally occurring biology by using specific beneficial organisms to improve the robustness of his farming system.
This case study provides insights into some of the main changes involving controlled traffic, cover crops and compost at the Kalfresh demonstration site in Queensland.
Learn more about soil biological, chemical and physical fertility, as well as access the Soils are Alive tool - the complete soil health reference for farmers, consultants and researchers.
This presentation provides a great overview of the role of phosphorus in soil biology by Dr Cassandra Schefe, from Monash University and Schefe Consulting.
Members of the Soil Wealth and ICP team were recently interviewed for the Potatoes Australia magazine. The key message? Many of the soil health and plant protection practices relevant to vegetables, also apply to potatoes.
Click through to read the article.
The Vegetable SOILpak manual was developed by NSW Department of Primary Industries to provide soil information relevant to irrigated vegetable production in New South Wales. The manual aims to provide decision support for landholders and advisers, helping to maintain or improve productivity over both the short and long term.
Read this excellent summary of some common tools for managing soil health in cropping/mixed enterprises in Tasmania. Generally, the more tools you can use, the better!
This poster was prepared by Adrian James, NRM North, with contributions by Bill Cotching, Doris Blaesing, Greg Gibson and John McPhee.
The farm walk on cover crops by Kelvin Montagu was streamed by Good Fruit and Vegetables and can be viewied here.
Hear from Rob Hinrichsen of Kalfresh in QLD about using controlled traffic in commercial vegetable production systems.
This video captures Rob's experiences with the technology achieving 'growing zones' and 'driving zones', the benefits of reduced tillage down from 11-12 passes to 2-3 passes, the costs of transitioning the cultivation system, as well as how the business piloted the technology before making the big change.
The Soil Wealth and Integrated Crop Protection projects provide R&D extension services, products and communication on improved soil management and plant health to the Australian vegetable industry.
From 2014 to 2017, RMCG and AHR have delivered the projects for Horticulture Innovation Australia. Phase 1 of the projects have now been completed. So, what’s been achieved?
The purpose of this guide is to help growers and agronomists interpret conventional ‘chemical’ soil tests and identify soil chemical constraints for commercial vegetable production in Australia.
This resource can be used to guide site specific decisions on nutrition management. It does NOT provide prescriptive information on how much of a certain nutrient or fertiliser to apply to various vegetable crops. A recipe approach is not recommended because results in crop performance would be unreliable.
A soil test, combined with a visual soil assessment, and knowledge about paddock history and production plans, provides a sound basis for a nutrition program. A conventional soil test can provide some information about biological and physical soil properties. While a complete soil condition assessment covers physical, biological and chemical soil properties of the topsoil and subsoil.
Soil health refers to the fitness of the soil to achieve its potential, within natural or managed limitations, and be productive under
the intended land use. Healthy soils have physical, chemical and biological properties that sustain biological functioning, maintain environmental quality and promote plant, animal and human health.
This practical fact sheet outlines the importance of healthy soil, its characteristics and how to get there, as well as the main soil health issues and potential solutions.
The Soils in Schools program started in 2015, the UN declared International Year of Soils. It is an initiative of Soil Science Australia.
This programs vision is to communicate and educate school children on the relevance of soils in everyday life and to encourage a wider interest in our soil resources.
Maintaining or increasing soil carbon makes good sense – for the environment and for soil productivity. While climate scientists talk about soil carbon, you will know it better as soil organic matter. And the productivity benefits of soil organic matter are legendary:
• Providing a slow release supply of nutrients
• Improving cation exchange capacity and nutrient- holding ability
• Buffering against soil acidity
• Improving soil structure and aggregate stability
• Improving soil water holding capacity
• Reducing erosion risk.
This fact sheet summaries the opportunities and management options for mitigating or sequestering soil carbon in vegetable soils.
A healthy topsoil is a great asset to have, as this layer of soil contains the highest concentration of organic matter, micro-organisms, nutrients and biological activity. Lost topsoil can’t be replaced in a human’s lifespan. Therefore erosion, probably the biggest culprit in the loss of topsoil, should be effectively managed.
This fact sheet provides essential information on managing soil erosion, including reducing the impact of wind and water. The easy to read publication also guides decision-making on managing your irrigation system, controlling run-off water, covering exposed soil areas, improving soil structure and increasing cohesion between soil particles.
Vegetable pathologist, Dr Len Tesoriero and AHRs Dr Kelvin Montagu, recently presented a highly successful webinar on how to manage the soil borne disease Pythium in vegetable crops.
The webinar was recorded, and is now available as a YouTube video. You can click on the link below to watch the full Webinar. You can also download the presentation and follow the link to an ICP factsheet on how to manage soil borne disease in vegetable crops.
The Soil Wealth and ICP project team set up a “cover crop” trial there as a real farm demonstration to help growers adopt sustainable practices, and, importantly, improve their bottom line. The trial, near Cowra, in the Central West region of NSW.
All the cover crops resulted in higher yields than the fallow control. The highest yields in this trial were obtained with clover (+48%) and field peas (+36%), but ryegrass alone and compost were also effective in increasing yields compared to bare fallow.
Hear from Tasmanian lettuce grower Colin Houston about the exciting demonstrations being run on his new farm aimed at improving profitability and sustainability.
Vegetable growers and advisors discuss how attending a master class has changed the way they manage soilborne diseases and influenced their business.
Part 2 of 5 of a Green Crops and Biofumigation seminar presented by Dale Gies from High Performance Seeds Inc, Washington, USA. Seminar hosted by Serve-Ag Tasmania, February 2015 and broadcast by Soil Wealth.
A summary of the importance of soil, soil science and good soil management from a Victorian perspective.
Missed the Bulmer Farm Walk on 21 May 2015? Catch up on reduced tillage options in vegetables in this video from Jeanette Servers of Good Fruit & Vegetable.
Part 1 of 5 of a Green Crops and Biofumigation seminar presented by Dale Gies from High Performance Seeds Inc, Washington, USA. Seminar hosted by Serve-Ag Tasmania, February 2015 and broadcast by Soil Wealth.
This book is a practical guide to ecological soil management that provides background information as well as details of soil-improving practices. It is meant to give the reader an appreciation of the importance of soil health and to suggest ecologically sound practices that help to develop and maintain healthy soils.
This book by Gary Zimmer, a farmer in the United States, provides support for farmers who would like to reduce chemical inputs and use natural processes within their farming systems.
This publication from ATTRA (National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service) in the United States provides information on improving disease suppression within soil.
This guide provides a context for soil health by looking at soil ecosystems and how they function, providing simple descriptions of soil organisms likely to be found, guiding understanding of what may be good or bad populations of organisms, and outlining a range of management practices likely to impact both positively and negatively on soil ecosystem function.
Biofumigation is the use of specialised cover crops, which are grown, mulched and incorporated into the soil prior to cropping. High biomass, especially roots, can provide the traditional benefits of green manure crops, and if done right, naturally occurring compounds from the biofumigant plants can suppress soil-borne pests, diseases and weeds.
Sole reliance on fumigants like Metham Sodium often changes soil conditions and reduces inherent disease suppressive soil properties, reinforcing continued reliance on fumigation to deal with soilborne diseases, pests and weeds.
This website contains a series of documents to guide you through the successful prodution of lettuce.
This website contains a series of documents to guide you through the successful prodution of Brassica crops.
A reduced till system on this Cowra vegetable farm delivered soil, cost and crop benefits.
NSW farmers, Ed and James Fagan explain how they developed a reduced tillage vegetable farming operation in Cowra, NSW.
Want to get an good overview of soil biology, then this video is a good place to start.
Cadmium is a widespread, naturally occurring, element that is present in soils, rocks, waters, plants and animals. It is crucial to limit our long-term exposure to cadmium, as it can accumulate in humans and high levels can affect human health.
This article originally published in Vegenotes, provides an insight into managing cadmium in vegetable production.