Pest and Disease Management

Enable Filters

Resources

Fungicides and Fungicide Resistance

September 2019
Fungicides and Fungicide Resistance

Vegetable crop diseases are often caused by fungi. Examples of foliar diseases caused by fungi include: downy mildew, powdery mildew and white blister. Examples of soilborne fungal diseases include: clubroot and diseases cause by Pythium, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia and Sclerotium species.

Fungicide resistance occurs when a fungicide or active-ingredient that was once effective, becomes no longer effective. It can occur when reduced rates of fungicides are used or when fungicides are over-used.

Read this fact sheet to find out more about detection and effective management.

Group A Herbicide Resistance in Tasmanian ryegrass populations

September 2019
Group A Herbicide Resistance in Tasmanian ryegrass populations

Recent surveys of Tasmanian ryegrass (Lolium spp.) populations have shown a significant increase in Group A herbicide resistance. John Broster (Charles Sturt University) found an increase in resistance from 18% in 2010 to 46% in 2015 to diclofop-methyl ‘Fop’ and sethoxydim ‘Dim’ herbicides.

The selection of resistant weeds can occur in just 3-4 years if herbicide groups (Modes of Action) are not rotated. Read this fact sheet for an overview of herbicide resistance and what you can do to avoid and minimise the risk of resistance developing.

Beet cyst nematode on vegetables

August 2019
Beet cyst nematode on vegetables

Beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) can cause considerable yield loss to brassicas, beets, rhubarb and spinach. The nematode severely damages root systems, especially during the summer months. Beet cyst nematode also infects many common weeds such as wild turnip, shepherd’s purse, fat- hen and portulaca, where it can survive and infect the next vegetable crop planted.

Read this fact sheet to find out more about control of beet cyst nematode, as well as key symptoms and life cycle.

Clubroot: a Galling Disease

April 2019
Clubroot: a Galling Disease

Clubroot is one of the most destructive diseases of brassicas globally. Although it was detected in Australia as early as the 1890s, Plasmodiophora brassicae, the pathogen that produces clubroot, caused widespread loss during the 1980s and 1990s due to increasing brassica production and use of transplants.

Read this fact sheet to find out more about why clubroot is a problem, what to do about it, costs, as well as future directions for research.

Managing the risk of redback spiders in broccoli crops

October 2018
Managing the risk of redback spiders in broccoli crops

Since 2016 there have been numerous customer complaints about redback spiders (Latrodectus hasselti) in broccoli. Complaints have mainly come between January and June, and from customers in all Australian states. This suggests that this is not an issue for a single production area, but can occur anywhere that broccoli is grown.

Redback spiders are clearly unacceptable to consumers, and also pose risks to growers, pickers and packers.

Despite their fearsome reputation, redback spiders are generally timid. They are nocturnal, travel only short distances and need protection from wind, rain and extremes of temperatures. Broccoli crops are not their usual habitat.

This fact sheet summarises what we know about the risk of redback spiders contaminating broccoli.

Managing fusarium diseases in vegetable crops

August 2018
Managing fusarium diseases in vegetable crops

Fusarium is a genus of common soilborne fungi. Most live as saprophytes on decaying plant matter while a few are also important plant pathogens.

While there are many different pathogenic Fusarium species, some of the most damaging diseases are caused by strains of one species complex, Fusarium oxysporum. They cause vascular wilt diseases by entering the roots and colonising the water-conducting tissue (xylem). This causes older leaves to yellow and plants eventually wilt and die.

For more information read this practical fact sheet on fusarium wilt diseases, factors that favour fusarium diseases, and management strategies.

Clubroot management in brassica vegetables

August 2018
Clubroot management in brassica vegetables

Clubroot is one of the most potentially devastating soil borne diseases affecting brassica vegetables (e.g. cabbages, cauliflower, broccoli, kale and Brussels sprouts) in Australia. Once plants are infected there are no effective control measures.

Read this fact sheet to find out more about identifying clubroot, clubroot management strategies including integrated approaches, as well as evaluating clubroot risk.

Sclerotinia rot of green beans

July 2018
Sclerotinia rot of green beans

Sclerotinia rot, also known as white mould, is one of the major diseases of green beans in Australia. Sclerotinia rot can cause significant yield losses during the cropping season as well as post-harvest damage.

Read this fact sheet to discover more about identyfing slerotinia, management options, important irrigation timings and further reading.

Sclerotinia rot of vegetable crops

July 2018
Sclerotinia rot of vegetable crops

Sclerotinia rot is also known as white mould, cottony rot, drop of lettuce and nesting of beans after harvest.

Sclerotinia rot can also cause significant yield losses during cropping and as a post-harvest disease.

This factsheet outlines the disease life cycle and managment options.

Winter Crane Fly (Trichocera annulata)

July 2018
Winter Crane Fly (Trichocera annulata)

The winter crane fly is part of the large insect family Tipulidae. In Australia, the winter crane fly larvae feed on rotting organic matter and, possibly, on frost-damaged or waterlogged plants.

Read this fact sheet to discover more about the winter crane fly damage, life cycle, management options and further references.

Spinach Crown Mite

December 2017
Spinach Crown Mite

Spinach crown mites live in the topsoil; they thrive in a cool, moist environment. They feed mainly on partly decomposed organic material and on fungi living off decomposing material. They also feed on young spinach leaves which are close to the soils surface. Leaves become distorted which reduces the marketability of the crop.

The national distribution and identity of the mites in Australian spinach crops has not been confirmed. Effective, product based control methods are currently limited.

Read this fact sheet to find out more about identification, life cycle and available control measures.

Biopesticides in Australia

November 2017
Biopesticides in Australia

Biopesticides are a diverse group of pest control products based on naturally ocurring biochemicals, minerals and microbes. They generally have very low toxicity to humans and are sustainable with minimal environmental impacts. Many can be used in organic production.

Biopesticides often require a good understanding of pests and diseases to be used effectively. They help to manage, rather than completely control pests. Biopesticides are therefore best used in an integrated approach rather than as simple replacements for conventional pesticides.

Read this fact sheet to find out more about plant extracts, microbial pesticides, natural chemicals/minerals and biochemicals, including their availability, application, developments, challenges, advantages and disadvantages.

Damping off in spinach

July 2017
Damping off in spinach

Issues with damping off in spinach? This useful fact sheet provides an overview of the symptoms and conditions that favour different pathogens causing damping off such as Pythium spp, Phytophthora spp, Fusarium spp and Rhizoctonia spp. Knowing the causal pathogen can aid selection of effective management and control strategies.

There's also handy information on how the fungi spread, susceptibility and severity, diagnosis, and how to manage damping off, including practices to keep in your 'toolbox'.

Pythium in carrots: Cavity spot and forking in carrots

May 2017
Pythium in carrots: Cavity spot and forking in carrots

Two Pythium species are mostly responsible for forking and cavity spot of carrots in Australia. In most cases, P. sulcatum cause the symptoms.

While some general rules apply, especially the need for managing soil moisture, pH, soil calcium and crop maturity; carrot producers should find their own optimum combination of additional management strategies that fit their production systems and growing conditions.

Read this useful fact sheet to find out more about what causes cavity spot and forking in carrots, as well factors affecting cavity spot development and management approaches.

Adjuvants: A guide to oils, surfactants and other additives 

December 2016
Adjuvants: A guide to oils, surfactants and other additives 

Adjuvants are additives that enhance or modify the action of a chemical. They are commonly classified into broad categories including oils, surfactants, buffers, acidifiers and fertiliser adjuvants. Adjuvants can modify how a chemical forms, spreads or behaves within the spray solution and/or on the target pest.

This fact sheet provides insights into how adjuvants work, what types are available, and recommendations on what one to choose to make sure it's compatible with your pesticides active ingredients.

Managing Onion Maggot in vegetables

October 2016
Managing Onion Maggot in vegetables

Onion Maggot (Delia platura), also known as seed corn maggot, is an agricultural pest that damages seeds and seedlings in a wide range of crops including corn, beans, onions, garlic, brassicas, potatoes and spinach.

Reports of damage by this pest are usually following cool wet spring conditions. This fact sheet provides practical advice on the damage caused by Onion Maggot, its life cycle, and the cultural, biological and chemical control options. There are also some tips for great further reading if you want to know more.

Brassica whitefly control in vegetables

July 2016
Brassica whitefly control in vegetables

Brassica whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) is a pest of crops in the brassica family. This insect is not restricted to brassicas, although it prefers them. Its host range includes cabbages, cauliflowers, broccoli, kale and Asian vegetables, especially wombok (Chinese cabbage).

In NSW, the brassica whitefly has only become a pest of significance in the last 2-3 seasons but were first reported in Australia in 1997 in South Australia.

This fact sheet provides you with important information on damage, ecology, and management options including monitoring, cultural practices, biological control and chemical control.

How can I control pests? Options for controlling high priority pests in capsicums and chillies

March 2016
How can I control pests? Options for controlling high priority pests in capsicums and chillies

This easy to read fact sheet provides information on control options (both chemical and non-chemical) for high priority pests in capsicums and chillies. This fact sheet is the last in a series of seven publications that provide details on the currently registered and permitted pesticides for key diseases, insects and weeds in your crop.

How can I control pests? Options for controlling high priority pests in lettuce

March 2016
How can I control pests? Options for controlling high priority pests in lettuce

This easy to read fact sheet provides information on control options (both chemical and non-chemical) for high priority pests in lettuce. This fact sheet is the sixth in a series of seven publications that provide details on the currently registered and permitted pesticides for key diseases, insects and weeds in your crop.

How can I control pests? Options for controlling high priority pests in cucumbers

February 2016
How can I control pests? Options for controlling high priority pests in cucumbers

This easy to read fact sheet provides information on control options (both chemical and non-chemical) for high priority pests in cucumbers. This fact sheet is the fifth in a series of seven publications that provide details on the currently registered and permitted pesticides for key diseases, insects and weeds in your crop.

How can I control pests? Options for controlling high priority pests in celery

February 2016
How can I control pests? Options for controlling high priority pests in celery

This easy to read fact sheet provides information on control options (both chemical and non-chemical) for high priority pests in celery. This fact sheet is the fourth in a series of seven publications that provide details on the currently registered and permitted pesticides for key diseases, insects and weeds in your crop.

How can I control pests? Options for controlling high priority pests in carrots

February 2016
How can I control pests? Options for controlling high priority pests in carrots

This easy to read fact sheet provides information on control options (both chemical and non-chemical) for high priority pests in carrots. This fact sheet is the third in a series of seven publications that provide details on the currently registered and permitted pesticides for key diseases, insects and weeds in your crop.

How can I control pests? Options for controlling high priority pests in brassica vegetables

February 2016
How can I control pests? Options for controlling high priority pests in brassica vegetables

This easy to read fact sheet provides information on control options (both chemical and non-chemical) for high priority pests in brassica vegetable crops. This fact sheet is the second in a series of seven publications that provide details on the currently registered and permitted pesticides for key diseases, insects and weeds in your crop.

How can I control pests? Options for controlling high priority pests in brassica leafy vegetables

February 2016
How can I control pests? Options for controlling high priority pests in brassica leafy vegetables

This easy to read fact sheet provides information on control options (both chemical and non-chemical) for high priority pests in brassica leafy vegetable crops. This fact sheet is the first in a series of seven publications that provide details on the currently registered and permitted pesticides for key diseases, insects and weeds in your crop.

Management of Lettuce Anthracnose

February 2016
Management of Lettuce Anthracnose

Anthracnose is a foliage disease of lettuce that causes significant crop losses in iceberg, cos and babyleaf lettuce. It is an intermittent disease in Australia, driven mainly by extended periods of wet weather, particularly in mild-cool wet periods, during which crop losses can be severe. This fact sheet outlines control options available to Australian lettuce growers to control anthracnose.

Grafting Snake Beans to Control Fusarium Wilt

February 2016
Grafting Snake Beans to Control Fusarium Wilt

This Agnote developed by the Northern Territory Government describes the technique of grafting snake beans to control Fusarium wilt.

Slug control using Integrated Pest Management

December 2015
Slug control using Integrated Pest Management

In the higher rainfall zones, slugs in vegetable production systems can be a problem. As no single control method will provide complete protection, an integrated approach is best. Read this useful fact sheet to find out more, and learn from what other industries are doing.

White Blister

December 2015
White Blister

This vegenote provides useful information on how to identify white blister and options for managing the disease.

Tobamoviruses - tobacco mosaic virus, tomato mosaic virus and pepper mild mottle virus: Integrated virus disease management

October 2015
Tobamoviruses - tobacco mosaic virus, tomato mosaic virus and pepper mild mottle virus: Integrated virus disease management

Tobamoviruses—tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMV) — are stable and highly infectious viruses that are very easily spread from plant to plant by contact. These viruses can survive for long periods in crop debris and on contaminated equipment. Although these viruses affect field crops, they are more often a problem in greenhouse crops where plants are generally grown at a higher density and handled more frequently.

Aphid-transmitted viruses in vegetable crops: Integrated virus disease management

October 2015
Aphid-transmitted viruses in vegetable crops: Integrated virus disease management

The majority of viruses infecting plants are spread by insects, and aphids are the most common group of virus vectors or carriers. All potyviruses (the largest group of plant viruses) are transmitted by aphids.

Aphids are sap-sucking insects and have piercing, sucking mouthparts. Their mouthparts include a needle-like stylet that allows the aphid to access and feed on the contents of plant cells. During feeding, aphids simultaneously ingest sap contents and inject saliva, which can contain viruses if the aphid has previously fed on an infected plant.

The structure of aphid mouthparts, their searching behaviour for host plants, the range of available host plants and high reproductive rates contribute to the efficiency of aphids to act as virus carriers.

Managing Insect Contaminants

September 2015
Managing Insect Contaminants

Insects are potential contaminants of processed leafy vegetables. Pest and beneficial species, in both the juvenile and adult stages of their life cycles can become unwanted contaminants if they make their way from the field into the final packaged product and to the end consumer.

Managing Pesticide Resistance

July 2015
Managing Pesticide Resistance

Spraying not working? Have a look at this helpful fact sheet to improve your pesticide resistance management.

Identifying Key Pests and Diseases of Asian Vegetables

June 2015
Identifying Key Pests and Diseases of Asian Vegetables

The popularity of Asian vegetables has increased in recent years amongst consumers with a range of uses, including salad and baby leaf mixes. With increased demand has come the need to manage losses caused by pests and disease. Critical to the successful management of pest and diseases in any vegetable crop, is an understanding of the main pests and diseases known to affect each crop

Insect pests of cucurbit vegetables

June 2015
Insect pests of cucurbit vegetables

Cucurbits include watermelons, cantaloupes, cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkins, squash, bitter melons, gourds, and hairy melons.

Alternatives to Metham Sodium

June 2015
Alternatives to Metham Sodium

Sole reliance on fumigants like Metham Sodium often changes soil conditions and reduces inherent disease suppressive soil properties, reinforcing continued reliance on fumigation to deal with soilborne diseases, pests and weeds.

Powdery mildew - a new disease of carrots

June 2015
Powdery mildew - a new disease of carrots

Powdery mildew has been found on a carrot crops in three states of Australia. The first finding of the disease was in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (MIA) of New South Wales in 2007. It has subsequently been found in Tasmania and South Australia in 2008. While the organism causing the disease is commonly found in parsnip crops, powdery mildew has not previously been recorded on carrots in Australia.

Management of Carrot Diseases

June 2015
Management of Carrot Diseases

Four page fact sheet on managing diseases of carrots.

Thrips in green beans

June 2015
Thrips in green beans

This fact sheet contains information on the identification and management of thrips in green beans.

Managing Sclerotinia Diseases in Vegetables

May 2015
Managing Sclerotinia Diseases in Vegetables

New management strategies for lettuce drop and white mould of beans.

Whitefly-transmitted viruses in vegetable crops: Integrated virus disease management

May 2015
Whitefly-transmitted viruses in vegetable crops: Integrated virus disease management

This technical reference note has been produced by Denis Persley and Cherie Gambley (DEEDI) as part of Horticulture Australia Limited project VGO 7128-Integrated management of virus diseases in vegetables.

Lettuce Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

May 2015
Lettuce Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

Helpful four page fact sheet on integrating pest management in lettuce.

Spray Application Basics

May 2015
Spray Application Basics

This helpful fact sheet outlines the key information required to get the best out of your chemical application.

Mega Pests: The Basics of Protecting Your Crops

May 2015
Mega Pests: The Basics of Protecting Your Crops

Want to regain control over chemical-resistant pests? Aiming to reduce costs while meeting quality assurance requirements? The Integrated Crop Protection (ICP) extension team has developed a series of five fact sheets to assist growers manage Mega Pests.

Mega Pests: Managing Major Chewing and Biting Insects

May 2015
Mega Pests: Managing Major Chewing and Biting Insects

Want to regain control over chemical-resistant pests? Aiming to reduce costs while meeting quality assurance requirements? The Integrated Crop Protection (ICP) extension team has developed a series of five fact sheets to assist growers manage Mega Pests.

Mega Pests: Managing Sucking Pests

May 2015
Mega Pests: Managing Sucking Pests

Want to regain control over chemical-resistant pests? Aiming to reduce costs while meeting quality assurance requirements? The Integrated Crop Protection (ICP) extension team has developed a series of five fact sheets to assist growers manage Mega Pests.

Mega Pests: Managing Foliar Diseases

May 2015
Mega Pests: Managing Foliar Diseases

Want to regain control over chemical-resistant pests? Aiming to reduce costs while meeting quality assurance requirements? The Integrated Crop Protection (ICP) extension team has developed a series of five fact sheets to assist growers manage Mega Pests.

Mega Pests: Managing Soilborne Diseases

May 2015
Mega Pests: Managing Soilborne Diseases

Want to regain control over chemical-resistant pests? Aiming to reduce costs while meeting quality assurance requirements? The Integrated Crop Protection (ICP) extension team has developed a series of five fact sheets to assist growers manage Mega Pests.

Managing Downy and Powdery Mildew, Anthracnose and White Blister - Efficacy and economic benefit of control options

May 2015
Managing Downy and Powdery Mildew, Anthracnose and White Blister - Efficacy and economic benefit of control options

The key messages of this fact sheet are:
- Plant resistant varieties.
- Irrigate crops in the morning to reduce leaf wetness and infection.
- Manage nutrients as they impact on disease.
- Use disease forecasting models when cropping susceptible varieties.

Viruses in vegetable crops in Australia - Integrated virus disease management

May 2015
Viruses in vegetable crops in Australia - Integrated virus disease management

Viruses are a major cause of loss in many Australian vegetable crops. Often the intricate relationships between the virus, host plants and the vector, or carrier, create problems in developing effective management systems. This reference note provides information on plant viruses and how they are transmitted, and lists viruses of importance to the Australian vegetable industry.